Yazidis are kurdish ethno religious community predominantly living in northern iraq with large communities in sinjar and shekhan, where a number of their holy sites are located, turkey, iran and some of them are scattered in the european w. Yazidis are sometimes classed with zoroastrians, as they have retained from ancient times or reborrowed some practices and concepts from the zoroastrians. The yazidi holy books are claimed to be the kiteba cilwe book of revelation and the mishefa res black book. My story of captivity, and my fight against the islamic state hardcover november 7, 2017. Both parents must be yazidis for a child to be considered part of the yazidi religious group. The first half of the book contains some of their creation mythology and other stories. He told me their main religious text, meshaf i resh or the black book, doesnt allow them to eat lettuce or butter beans, wear dark blue, wash alone in the bath or urinate standing up this. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature.
However, scholars generally agree that the manuscripts of both books published in 1911 and 19 were forgeries written by non yazidis in response to western travellers and scholars interest in the yazidi religion. For the time of the zombies creation, it was clearly racial. Other kinship groups who have special roles are the feqirsknown for their religious knowledge and ascetic lives, and recognizable by their sacred black cloak known as the xirqeand the qewwals, who learn and perform the qewls, or sacred hymns. Theres also the fact that malek taus other name shaytan means devil in arabic, leading to additional assumptions that yazidis worship satan, according to time. Yezdan or ezid, meaning god, and simply means worshippers of god. This book focusses mainly on the culture and history of yezidis. The yezidi or yazidi religious minority has been lifted from obscurity for the very worst reason.
They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or discussion of beliefs, mythologies, ritual practices, commandments or laws, ethical conduct, spiritual aspirations, and for creating or fostering a religious community. This has been compiled into what is known as the black book. It is also commonly regarded as consisting of the way people deal with ultimate concerns about their lives and their fate after death. Yazidi cultural practices are observed in kurmanji, which is also used by almost all the orally transmitted religious traditions of the yazidis. The hasidim carefully keep the torah commandments and talmudic instructions in all areas, even in those less suitable for modern western society. The subjective part is what that other is, i would say. These are probably the three most unclear religions in the world and what is strangely ironic enough is their massive popularity. Kiteba cilwe book of revelation and the mishefa res black book.
However, the black book contains more of the creation and history stories of yezidism. Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. Although scattered and probably numbering only between 200,000 and 1,000,000, the yazidis have a wellorganized society, with a chief sheikh as the supreme religious head and an emir, or prince, as the secular head. By the reckoning at, the religious calendar traces back 6,764 years, a. Who are the yazidi people, and what are their beliefs. Religious syncretism, the fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices. Black book is simply a kurdish translation of the english and arabic black books, or if. Yazidi, member of a kurdish religious minority found primarily in northern iraq. They have been brought to the attention of the international world because of the cruelty and slaughter that came upon them in the form of the islamic state. Seeing the barrenness of the ether, he created the form of the seven heavens, the earth, sun and moon. Now, i would say its about anything one would want it to be. Yazidis who marry nonyazidis are automatically considered to have converted to the religion of their spouse and therefore are not permitted to call themselves yazidis.
Prehistory middle paleolithic 300,00050,000 bce despite claims by some researchers of bear worship, belief in an afterlife, and other rituals, the archaeological evidence does not support the presence of religious practices by modern humans or neanderthals during this period. Kitba cilwe book of revelation and the mishefa res black book. However, the yazidis in bashiqa and bahzani speak arabic as their mother language. So far there are two parts roughly translated the revelation and the black book. They are being literally exterminated by the islamic state jihadis. Here are some historic lists that deal in mystery, secrecy, and religion. The two religious books of the yazidis have arabic text. Mani encouraged the translation of his writings into other languages and.
Yazidism has until recently been a religion of orthodox practice and right living. Religion is a fascinating topic, but add secrecy to the mix and you move it up to a whole new level. According to the content of the book, which is believed to have been written by sheikh adi, creation occurred when god creates a white pearl from his. The yazidi genocide in iraq by michele buscher by guest contributor on september 17, 2014 10 roughly seven hours prior to my composing this blog, a report was disseminated across the internet offering what is being called a firsthand account of mosul womens prison currently in iraq where possibly thousands of yazidi, christian and. Yezidis article about yezidis by the free dictionary. Yezidi theology, oral tradition, rituals, and rites of passage. Jan 01, 2010 the book was well written, i enjoyed reading about dr.
Modern yezidis are mainly of kurdish origin whose ancestors practiced a proto indoiranian religion. List of religions and spiritual traditions wikipedia. Religions of the world part 1 the yazidi branch of yazdnism. The basis of the yazidis holy scriptures are two books the book of revelation not to be confused by the christian text with the same name and the black book. I sometimes get enquiries concerning the yezidi people, associated with the kurds in most sources waned current commentaries. One of the worlds most endangered religious minorities, the yazidis are a. The yazidis are a kurdish minority group who follow a syncretic religion that draws on aspects of ancient mesopotamian faiths, zoroastrianism, and the abrahamic faiths. Religious practices prayers yazidis have five daily prayers. The name comes from the ancient city of yazd in iran, which still has an operating fire temple.
A history of zombies as the racial other jason colavito. In many traditions, this relation and these concerns are expressed in. History, facts and traditions of iraqs persecuted minority. The true core texts of the yazidi religion that exist today are the hymns, known as qawls.
The cosmogonic myth is described in the mishefa resh, the black book, which contains the laws and religious precepts of the yazidis and is one of their holy books ac. The history of a community, culture and religion by. Yezidi mythology creation, floods, and a large black snake. The kurdish people have historically inhabited parts of the fertile crescent, an area where the three major abrahamic or semitic religions of judaism, christianity and islam are widely recognized to have been founded. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. This is the yazidi or yezidi religion among few kurds the descendents of ancient indian immigrant settlers called also the hurrians mittani and hittites. The mystery religions were not, of course, the only manifestations of the religious spirit in the eastern roman empire. But for me, that intrinsic, more apparent meaning that shines through is fear of the other. It should be kept in mind that, when this book was written, the gnostics were virtually unknown, save from opposing views in early christian writings. Religion, human beings relation to that which they regard as holy, sacred, absolute, spiritual, divine, or worthy of especial reverence. Unfortunately sometimes mistaken as devilworship due to their secret nature for survival. Yezidis believe the black book originated when the lord descended black mountain. Jan 23, 2012 secret hinduism in middleeast still surviving from ancient times.
Jan 02, 2020 there is great distinction between the two lifestyles and religious practices. The sacred scriptures of the yazidis are two short books written in arabic. Two short books, kitab aljilwah book of revelation and maafrash black book. In the yazidi religion belief system, god created the world and it is now in the care of a heptad of seven holy beings, known as angels. Pdf protecting yazidi cultural heritage through women. The yazidi holy books are the kiteba cilwe book of revelation and the mishefa res black book. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, and guide individual and communal religious practice. Yazidism is rooted in the ancient native iranian and mesop. Nonetheless they do reflect authentic yazidi traditions. Since the fall of 2014, the atrocities of isis islamic state of iraq and syria committed in iraq and syria came into light, the world learned that thousands of innocent yezidis were slaughtered. The secular leader is a hereditary emir or prince, whereas a chief sheikh heads the religious hierarchy.
Religious texts often communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as. Aug 20, 2014 who are the yazidi people, and what are their beliefs. Before christ came into this world our religion was paganism. This book argues it is time to rethink the way the women, peace. This stone had the telltale drilled hole, but also had radial blast lines where the blasting powder had exploded. Jaap verduijns odu ifa collection zoroastrianismedit yasna 28. Yezidi religious beliefs upon closer examination appear to be a. The black book acts as a codification of the religion that describes yazidi religious beliefs and traditions. The yezidis have two sacred books, the kitab aljilwa, the book of. Spurious examples of socalled yazidi religious texts include the yazidi black book and the yazidi book of revelation, which were forged in the early 20th century.
Mashaf res the black book in the beginning god created the white pearl out of his most precious essence. Yazidism is the religion of a kurdish peoplegroup that lives primarily in iraq. Who are the yazidis and what do they believe about god. A follower of the ancient yazidi religion prays at the holy lalish temple in.
However, scholars generally agree that the manuscripts of both books published in 1911 and 19 were forgeries written by nonyazidis in response to western travellers and scholars interest in the yazidi religion. He gave a great shout before the pearl, after which it split into four pieces. Contrary to inaccurate reports, the yazidis are a kurdish religious group and not an ethnic group following the fall of saddam hussein in 2003, the kurds asked for the yazidis to be entirely recognise as belonging to their people. The revelation mainly consists of god speaking to the yezidi about who he is and who they are in relation to him. Fighters routinely beat yazidi women and girls in their possession. The reason these cults were called mystery religions is that they involved secret ceremonies known only to those initiated into the cult.
Kitab aljilwah book of revelation supposed to have been written by sheikh adi himself, and mishaf rash black. Some yezidi mythology has been translated into english and other languages. The yezidi have a strong ethical code and customs like those of many other agricultural tribal people, as is apparent from the ethnological sketch which rounds out this book. The yezidis doctrine is set forth in the book of revelation and the black book, written in a secret script. Even though they have legends connecting them to the east, the idea of a link with india appears ridiculous at first sight. Their religious worship is distinctive in that they have no churches. Sacred books and traditions of the yezidiz, by isya joseph, 1919, full text etext at.
More recently the yezidi religious authorities have given permission for their people living abroad to write down and even to translate some of the stories and poetry of their people. Rasail alhikmah epistles of wisdom indian hinduism. It is now generally accepted that the manuscripts of the yazidi sacred book s. Because their religion venerates a peacock angel whose mythology is similar to that of iblis, the islamic satan, outside observers have long accused the yazidis of being devil worshipers. What are the beliefs and history of the yezidi religion. In northern iraq, followers of one of the worlds most colourful religions are in danger of being wiped out by islamic state jihadists and now the. Acikyildizs journey to iraq and other yazidi territories, the first half of the book was a particularly enjoyable read. And supposedly, the religion is syncretic, meaning that it incorporates elements of many different faith traditions, including christianity, islam, and zoroastrianism. What were the viking mooring stones really used for.
Like the ahle haqq, the yazidis use the metaphor of a change of garment to describe the process, which they call kiras guhorin in kurdish changing the garment. The manuscripts of both books were published in 1911 and 19 were forgeries written by nonyezidis in response to western travelers and scholars interest in the yazidi religion. The most widely practiced kurdish religion is islam. Sacred books and traditions of the yezidiz index sacred texts. Some are puzzled when they cannot find the name yezidi on a list of peoples. However, i have been unable to find any other third party translation of these texts, so caveat lector. A belief in the reincarnation of lesser yazidi souls also exists. Followers venerate two books, the black book and the book of revelation. Although yazidis are often regarded as kurds, they form a religious and ethnic minority with unique beliefs and practices misunderstood by their neighbours, leading to their persecution and.
Firts of all, you have to understand that yazidism is to certain extent an obscure religion because yazidis are quite secretive. Secret hinduism in middleeast still surviving from ancient. Yezidi religion multidisciplinary view of the religious. The yazidis, isolated in a remote iraq region, are misunderstood and persecuted by their neighbours. The yazidis live far away from india in iraq, iran and turkey. On death mountain, the yazidis faced a desperate struggle. To make a very long investigation somewhat shorter, the team found an elderly farmer named emil mattson who participated in such blasting practices in the early 1900s and was able to lead the team to a failed rock blast from that era. Yazidism has until recently been a religion of orthodox practice and right living, rather than of dogma. The fusion of cultures that was effected by the conquest of alexander the great 4th century bce, his successors, and the roman empire resulted in a strong tendency toward religious syncretism. Hunted by militants from the islamic state, thousands of people from the yazidi community have fled to the slopes of iraqs mount sinjar, where they are caught between the prospect of death by dehydration and murder at the hands of the group formerly called isis.
One area of disagreement between hasidic judaism and orthodox judaism regards the current state of israel. Others tie the name yazidi to an old avestan word yazata for angel. The yazidi religion is monotheistic and can be traced. Executive summary this report focuses on the yazidi community, one of the largest minority groups in iraq, and their perceptions on conflicts and future reconciliation following the islamic states is invasion in 2014. The book of revelation and black book remain, however, the most prominent texts. The second part focussed mostly on arts and architecture surrounding the yazidi buildings and their faith. The yazidis own selfunderstanding holds that theirs is humanitys original and oldest religion. The yazidi religion includes elements of ancient iranian religions as well as elements of judaism, nestorian christianity, and islam. Only 7,00,000 or so yazidis remain on the planet today and most of them are in the northern provinces of iraq near kurdistan.
Meefa res is one of two books written in the style of a holy book of the yazidis in northern kurdis h, the other being the yazidi book of revelation kiteba jilw e. Aug 09, 2014 yazidis are in news for a grave situation in northern iraq. It is one of three yazdani religions, alevism and ahle haqq being the others. The religious community professing yazidism consists of between 200,000 and 300,000 people. The religious minority is once again threatened by genocide in iraq. Religious texts also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the latin scriptura, meaning writing are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Mashaf res the black book internet sacred text archive. The majority of yazidis remaining in the middle east today live in iraq, primarily in the nineveh and dohuk governorates. However, scholars generally agree that the manuscripts of both books published in 1911 and 19 were forgeries written by non yazidis in response to western travelers and scholars interest in the yazidi religion. The actual core texts of the religion that exist today are the. A large number of iraqs tiny yazidi minority remains isolated on a remote mountain top, fearing the selfstyled islamic state and. Please note that these are ancient scriptures and that practices have. The yazidi holy books are written in the kurmanji dialect of the kurdish language.
Family law is characterised by tribal customs and religious code, according to which, for example, a yazidi woman cannot marry a man who does not belong to the minority. The reason for the yazidis reputation of being devil worshipers is connected to the other name of melek taus, shaytan, the same name the koran has for satan. Jun 09, 2018 religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, and guide individual and communal religious practice. Jan 29, 2016 contrary to inaccurate reports, the yazidis are a kurdish religious group and not an ethnic group following the fall of saddam hussein in 2003, the kurds asked for the yazidis to be entirely recognise as belonging to their people. History, facts and traditions of iraqs persecuted minority by yasmine hafiz hunted by militants from the islamic state, thousands of people from the yazidi community have fled to the slopes of iraqs mount sinjar, where they are caught between the prospect of death by dehydration and murder at the hands of the group. He placed the white pearl on the back of the bird, and dwelt on it for forty thousand years. Yazidi are a religious group, now a tiny minority in sharia nations where they and zoroastrians, along with christians and jews were once the majority populations. Religious text wikimili, the best wikipedia reader. The actual core texts of yazidi religion are hymns known as qawls. Then he brought man up from the pearl accompanied by angels. He created mankind, animals, birds and beasts in the pockets of his cloak.
The yazidi black book is one of two books written in the style of a holy book of the yazidis in. Researchers believe that the yazidi creed has elements from zoroastrianism, manicheism, judaism, christianity, and islam. It has been suggested that these come from a time when the divide between yazidism and islam was not yet absolute. The abrahamic religions include judaism, christianity, and islam. The yazidi religion is not wellknown and has some problems when it comes to religious texts.
This book presents itself as a scholarly account of the saga and religious culture of the yezidi faithful. The major benefit of these practices was thought to be some kind of salvation. Yezidism did not have liturgical or historical writing before 12th century, but the contemporary religious practices and hymns orally transmitted over generations hint at various layers of development. Yazidi society is organized into three castelike social groups determined by birththe religious sheikhs and pirs and the lay murids. Some yazidis also live in armenia, turkey, iran, georgia, and syria. The yazidis in iraq live primarily in nineveh governorate, part of the disputed territories of northern iraq. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Where yazidi women and children are injured by rapes or beatings, isis fighters do not permit them access to medical care. Jul 18, 2017 a brief summary of this book is as follows.1637 324 1524 1320 6 10 185 735 1421 1446 281 664 723 844 756 1241 1159 310 1094 865 148 253 70 935 1644 1506 855 83 596 566 1127 1111 765 899 1281 312 1168 1068 488