Video sample from amine sweetening, overview and explanation of principles, supported with onsite viewing and clear graphics. Pdf specification for glycoltype gas dehydration units. The treated gas exits the unit at a higher temperature than the feed gas. Amine sweetening units have been used in gas processing for nearly 80 years to remove h2s and co 2 from sour gas streams. The inlet filter is used to remove unwanted solid particles and liquid hydrocarbons from the sour gas stream before it goes through the sweetening loop. This rich amine is then routed into the regenerator to produce a lean amine that can. Caution should be used when referring to a vessel required for gas. A typical amine sweetening process includes an absorber unit and a regenerator unit. Two key passages are the sweetening removal of h 2s and co 2 and the dehydration processes. Detailed description of typical amine unit process. Sour natural gas compositions can vary over a wide concentration of h 2 s and co 2 and a wide concentration of hydrocarbon components. Arnold, gas sweetening and processing field manual, usa. For the ammonia free base case, the unit requires 920 gpm of 15 weight. These amine chemicals are regenerated, and not consumed, as with scavenger type systems.
If you do not wish to use proprietary solvents then kasravand will optimize your gas sweetening plant for use with readily available, generic solvents the amine treating unit removes co2 and h2s from sour gas. The sweetened gas flows through the sweet gas cooler where it is cooled before going to the overhead scrubber. Khurmal sour gas is considered a highly loaded acid gas with more than 50,000 ppm of h2s and more than 4 % of co2 and successfully treated the problem by using latest version of aspen hysys v. Primer and implications for gas processing white paper laurence reid conference, feb 2014 datasheet.
Power engineering 4th class ch 144 flashcards quizlet. Gas sweetening units, also known as amine treating units, are a processing unit that removes contaminants from gas, making it environmentally suitable for transportation and commercial use. Ifp energies nouvelles effect of the tower type on the gas sweetening process abdolkarim sharifi 0 elham omidbakhsh amiri 0 0 department of chemical engineering, university of mazandaran, babolsar iran the removal of acid gases, co2 and h2s from natural gas streams is essential for environmental and health reasons. Conventional linear control schemes based on rigorous mathematical models, implemented in sweetening units, show poor performance and lead to offspecification products. The separation of the hydrocarbons, known as ngl c2 plus is carried out next. Influence of ammonia on gas sweetening units using amine soluti. Use pdf download to do whatever you like with pdf files on the web and regain control. Scribd is the worlds largest social reading and publishing site. Uops merox tm process is a leading technology for lpg extraction, gasoline sweetening, and jetkerosene sweetening. Paris sandieoo san francisco s1noapore sydney tokyo oulfproteulowl publuhinii mimprintofbikvict. Gas sweetening and processing field manual 1st edition.
During the last 20 years mdea has become a more popular solvent, especially when used for selective removal of h 2s over co. For over 50 years, uop has served the refining industry to meet increasingly difficult sulfur regulations and has more than 1800 process units. All of the h2s and most of the water vapor, co2, and n2 must be removed first. Effect of the tower type on the gas sweetening process pdf. The process is referred to as sweetening and it processes gases so they no longer have the sour, foul odors of mercaptans and hydrogen sulphide. A technical report on gas sweetening by amines subhasish mitra. For the absorber block, the user must specify the amine type mea, dea, or dga, the weight percent amine, and either the desired acid gas loading or the percent of equilibrium acid gas loading.
Selection of amine in natural gas sweetening process for acid. It is an essential step of sour gas processing for natural gas treatment, ngl recovery. If the h 2 s content exceeds the sales gas specification limit, the excess h 2 s must be separated from the sour gas. Different types of organic and inorganic species were found as. If h2s and co2 volumes are appreciable, this lowers the heating value of the sales gas. Amines commonly used in the industry are monoethanolaminemea, diethanolamine dea and methyldietholamine mdea. Amine gas sweetening solutions amine gas sweetening is a proven technology that removes h2s and co2 from natural gas and liquid hydrocarbon streams through absorption and chemical reaction. Role of aqueous methyldiethanolamine mdea as solvent in. Conventional merox for sweetening jet fuel or kerosene. Emission data for sweetening processes other than amine types are very meager, but a.
It is a proprietary catalytic chemical process developed by uop used in oil refineries and natural gas processing plants to remove mercaptans from lpg, propane, butanes, light naphthas, kerosene and jet fuel by converting them to liquid hydrocarbon disulfides. Amine gas treating sweetening of sour gas lec048 youtube. The entire process is very energy intensive and results in high operating costs. In the absorber, the amine solution absorbs h2s and co2 from the sour gas to produce a sweetened gas stream as a product and a rich amine solution with the absorbed acid gases. In the case of sweetening, the most common process technique.
The different gas sweetening processes to be applied depend on the quality and quantity of acid. Caustic free merox for sweetening jet fuels and kerosenes. The most common methods for acid gas removal are via amines, physical solvents, or membranes, the choice of which depends on the levels of. An amine solution to absorb the hydrogen sulphide from the crude oil d. Amine gas treating sweetening of sour gas lec048 chemical engineering guy. Pdf a technical report on gas sweetening system researchgate. Using proven amine technology and fulfilling the requirements of our clients, frames gas sweetening is a reliable and costeffective solution that increases the value of gas resources. It can increase pressure drop in the line and often leads to corrosion problems. Web to pdf convert any web pages to highquality pdf. Doctor test is qualitative test for detecting hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan sulfur in hydrocarbon liquids. Optimization of new and existing amine gas sweetening plants.
Our expertise in sweetening processes includes multicomponent absorption of inorganic and organic sulphur species. Natural gas sweetening process simulation and optimization. Gas sweetening processes the different gas sweetening processes to be applied depend on the quality and quantity of acid gas contaminants to be removed. The acidic components removed are termed acid gas streams containing h2s, and may be flared, incinerated, or converted to elemental sulphur in a sulphur recovery unit. Next, the hydrocarbonfree dea solution is fed to a regeneration column. Typical process flow sheet for amine absorption unit prepared in 58. Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening or acid gas removal, refers to a practice that uses various alkanolamines also known as amines to remove h 2 s and co 2 from natural gas streams. Optimization of new and existing amine gas sweetening.
Amines as gas sweetening agents henriette hansen, master thesis spring 2014 page 3 of 74 abstract co 2 and h 2s are acid components present in natural gas recovered from wells in the underground. Operating data for this unit was used to quantify the impact of tuning various process conditions and to provide guidelines to achieve optimum operation of the amine sweetening unit. In the present study, the composition of natural gas in natural gas sweetening unit was determined by gcms. Prior to joining saudi aramco, since 1979 and for 7 years, he had been. The design of the plant has been optimized to recover the maximum amount of ethane to produce a ygrade product that meets commercial specifications while minimizing utilities usage and ensuring trouble free, low maintenance operations. Final selection is ultimately base d on process economics. This process continuously injects just a few ppm of caustic into the feed naphtha. Hazard evaluation of gas sweetening units natural gas is supplied to this plant.
Gas sweetening and processing field manual provides engineers with the ability to understand and select the most efficient and cost effective method to fit their individual needs. It is a common unit process used in refineries, and is also used in petrochemical plants, natural gas processing. Since the gas leaving the sweetening unit is usually water saturated, almost all plants. Therefore, the need for advanced controls based on non. The conventional merox process for the removal of mercaptans i. Energies free fulltext technoeconomic analysis of a novel. The results showed that for the nordic region, natural gas sweetening i.
The principle process stream is the removal of the acid gases by counter flowing contact with an amine solution, commonly known as amine gas sweetening. Sebastine2 1school of chemical and petroleum engineering, koya university, kurdistan regioniraq 2school of science and engineering, teesside university, uk abstract natural gas is the most important and. Designed for engineers, technologists, and operations personnel involved in the design and operation of gas processing facilities, the book starts with an explanation. To remove free water and liquid hydrocarbons, an inlet filter separator is used to reduce the likelihood of foaming. If foaming does occur it can result in high amine losses, offspec gas. Ngl2 adip unit for utility gas sweetening of umm said. Heat to drive off the hydrogen sulphide from the sour gas b. In the transmission of natural gas further condensation of water is problematic. Once removed, the co 2 and h 2 s are usually vented in low concentrations, flared, and then reinjected or otherwise properly disposed of. A process for treating a gas stream comprising hydrogen sulphide, the process comprising the steps of. Crude oil sweetening and stabilization aong website.
In this work, the simulated gas sweetening unit with methyl. The basic principles for process design of main equipment, piping, and instrumentation together with guidelines on present developments and process selection in the gas sweetening process are the main. The regenerator gas is then routed back to the inlet gas ltercoalescer. The amine solution sweetens the natural gas by absorbing the c0 2 and h 2 s upon contact. Amine solution to absorb the hydrogen sulphide from the gasoline e. Effect of the tower type on the gas sweetening process. An amine solution to absorb the hydrogen sulphide from the sour gas c. The inlet stream to the gas treatment unit gtu typically arrives at a temperature of 30 to 45 degrees c.
The feed gas is pretreated through a filter coalescer to remove any entrained solids andor liquids from the feed stream. The co2 is removed from the process gas stream in twostage co2 absorber. Hydrogen sulfide h2s, carbon dioxide co2, mercaptans, and other contaminants are often found in natural gas streams. Unless the gas is completely free of any liquids, the ng must go into an inlet. Alfaddagh, engineering consultant instructor kefah alfaddagh joined saudi arabian oil company saudi aramco in 1986 and retired in 2012.
Each of the amines offers distinct advantages to specific treating problems. Contents part 1 gassweetening 1 processingnaturalgas 1 introduction 1 natural gas processing 2 oil andcondensate removal 4. Modelling of natural gas sweetening and dehydration processes. The mercaptan oxidation reaction takes place in an alkaline environment as the feedstock jet fuel or kerosene, mixed with compressed air, flows through a fixed bed of catalyst in a reactor vessel. An overview natural gas processing and the removal of various components from it tend to involve the most complex and expensive processes. Modelling of natural gas sweetening and dehydration prior. The mea solution is used for deep removal of co2 when the feed gas is free from h2s, h2s. The dry stream is compressed and heated to regenerate the mol sieve bed. S removal acid gas treatment and removal technologies separate sour gaseshighly corrosive co 2 and often deadly h 2 s acid gasesfrom saleable natural gas streams in a process known as gas sweetening. Gas sweetening is the process for the removal of mainly acid gases h 2 s and co 2 and, in addition, the simultaneous removal of sulphur organic species rsh, cos, cs 2 from process gas. Acid gas loading in amine solutions for natural gas. Commercial gas plants often turn to amine sweetening units, systems with compliant stainless and carbon steel that can resist the corrosive forces of solvents like amines, which chemically bond with acidic gases to form unstable salts that eventually break down. Amines as gas sweetening agents amines as gas sweetening agents.
This chapter covers the minimum process requirements, criteria, and features for accomplishment of process design of gas sweetening units. The absorber overhead gas enters ko drum, where any entrained solution is separated out. Several unit operations are employed to simulate a typical gas sweetening process. To this end, a case study was performed for a commercial gas sweetening unit to analyze the effect of various operating conditions on the plant efficiency. Gas sweetening using dea oli support center oli systems, inc.
Co2 when this is the sole contaminant of the gas h2s when this is the sole contaminant of the gas co2 and h2s simultaneously. To illustrate the impact of stabilization and crude oil sweetening on the quality of crude oil, the properties of oil before and after treatment are compared as follows. Uop benfield process a thermallyregenerated, cyclical solvent process using low cost solvent, tailored for bulk or trace acid gas removal. Co from natural gas sweetening to kick start eor in the. Amine contractor untreated natural gas containing carbon dioxide c0 2 and hydrogen sulfide h 2 s flows into the bottom of the amine contactor where it contacts countercurrent flowing amine. Amine sweetening is a reliable and proven technology for removing h 2 s andor co 2 from sour gas and in situations in which low outlet concentrations are required. Amine gas treating, also known as amine scrubbing, gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkylamines commonly referred to simply as amines to remove hydrogen sulfide h 2 s and carbon dioxide co 2 from gases.
Semilean solution enters the top of the bulk section of the bulk of the co2 removal takes place. Each case must be considered on an individual basis due to a wide range of conditions and requirements for gas processing units. The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed analysis of the natural gas sweetening case shown in fig. The engineer may not have control over some variables such as inlet gas flow rate and composition. The sweet gas is removed overhead and the rich amine is drained and. The wet gas exiting the mol sieve bed passes through a regenerator gas cooler and regenerator gas separator to capture the steam and condense it back to water. Gas sweetening package amine gas sweetening process. This process injects small amounts of ammonia and water rather than caustic into the.
At some of these locations separators are referred to as knockouts, free liquid knockouts, and traps. Thus, sour gas or acid gas must be treated to remove these toxic components. Gas sweetening units risk assessment using hazop procedure. Natural gas processing encyclopedia of life support systems. In order to achieve such speci cations, the raw gas must pass through a series of puri cation steps, which compose the socalled natural gas chain. Untreated natural gas containing carbon dioxide c0 2 and hydrogen sulfide h 2 s flows into the bottom of the amine contactor where it contacts countercurrent flowing aminewater from the top of the tower. The removal of h 2 s from sour gas is called sweetening. The facilities consist of inlet gas dehydration, cryogenic ngl recovery and heat medium unit.
H2s is poisonous and if leakage occurs, people in the surroundings can be. The processes used for removal of acid gas are referred to as sour gas sweetening, amine gas sweetening. Contaminants in amine gas treating by randy haws ccr technologies inc. H2s form acidic gas ability to selectively no no yes b. Pdf gas sweetening process subhasish mitra academia. Tea type of amine primary secondary tertiary troublesome components in produced natural gas solution strengthin water, include. Product definition frames amine systems efficiently sweeten gas by removing hydrogen sulfide, andor carbon dioxide. Amine gas sweetening is a proven technology that removes h. Features of transtex treating amine unit 100% nace compliant. The quality of aqueous mdea used as solvent in this natural gas sweetening unit, deteriorates while absorbing h 2 sco 2 causing corrosion and foaming in the process. Gas absorption is one of the very first mass transfer unit operations studied. If not removed from the gas they are a cause of corrosion in equipment. The gas proceeds through the contactor column where the acid gasses co2 and h2s are removed from the gas stream.702 1041 27 1298 1578 221 116 1644 934 120 1235 1280 867 1356 784 295 997 1157 402 1048 533 594 592 781 958 1303 333 105 168 943